X-ray is one kind of electromagnetic wave with strong penetrability that can even penetrate the steel plate with certain thickness. So it is usually utilized for fluoroscopic imaging of different objects. Since 1895 when X-ray was discovered by Wilhelm Röntgen, the famous German physicist, it was firstly used in medical imaging and diagnosis. Later, in more than one hundred years that follow, X-ray had played significant role in various areas including medical, security inspection, nondestructive testing and industrial inspection. X-ray imaging technology is the most fundamental as well as the first method that has been used in contraband inspection.
Chinasafe, with radiation imaging as its core technology, is a security inspection solution and service supplier producing high-tech security inspection products with proprietary intellectual property rights. Based on high energy radiation imaging technology and by receiving the continuous x-ray spectrum generated by the accelerator (highest boundary energy ranges from 1MeV to 9MeV), Chinasafe Equipment has successfully developed various series of inspection system including fixed, mobile and relocatable container/vehicle inspection system, train inspection system and fast-scan inspection system, among which many are the very first of their kinds. All the systems are designed with high-quality imaging system and high penetration technology and the hardware and software can be tailor made according to customers’ requirements. Now,Chinasafe Equipment high energy inspection systems are widely used in various fields including containers inspection at customs, air cargo screening and train inspection.
Low energy x-ray imaging technology is mainly used in the baggage inspection system. Chinasafe baggage inspection systems are designed with more advanced x-ray generators, high-resolution detectors, higher level image processing algorithms, ergonomic-principle-based user interface and diversified network programming for higher operation efficiency. Taking the threats in various industries into account, Safeway System total solution for security inspection can effectively detect various kinds of hazardous items and contrabands including explosives, weapons, flammables, erosive items, candid cameras, wiretaps, radioactive substance and chemical and biological weapons. With flexible configuration, high efficiency and user-friendly design, the security solutions can meet the needs in all industries.
Dual-energy imaging technology was first used in the field of medical imaging and quickly got spread out widely in bone mineral density measurement in late 1970s. However, it remained a worldwide problem to make use of the high-energy and dual-energy x-ray generated by the accelerator and to apply it to inspect containers. In 2001, Safeway System developed the world first dual-energy x-ray container/vehicle inspection system. Through special processing, the system can inspect containers by two different types of x-ray with different energy generated by the same accelerator. While producing two pieces of fluoroscopic image, the system can measure the equivalent atomic numbers of the goods in the containers so as to distinguish the materials including organic, inorganic and nuclear materials, which greatly boosted the capability of identifying the materials inspected. Now, dual-energy imaging technology is becoming increasingly mature and it’s gradually used in all security inspection systems of Chinasafe .
Radioactive substance monitoring
Gamma rays or neutrons emitted from radioactive substances, after striking the detector, will react with the detection medium (such as plastic scintillator, NaI (Tl) or 3He gas), and the energy thus produced is converted into electrical pulse signal and output, and then is recorded by the data acquisition and processing system. For a simple alarm system, the system will, according to the change in the number of pulses recorded in unit time (i.e., the counting rate), determine whether the object to be inspected contains excessive radioactive substances or not.
For a nuclide identification system, the above-mentioned electrical pulse signal is recorded by multichannel analyzer and then forms Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) with the pulse amplitude as the horizontal axis and pulse counting as the vertical axis. Since different types of radioactive nuclide emit different radiation energy, the advanced nuclide identification algorithm can be used to analyze the EDS to show the type
of radioactive nuclide that causes the alarm, and then to provide more basis for the decision of users.
Chinasafe provides a series of products for monitoring radioactive substances and measuring nuclear radiation, which help customers monitor existing radiation sources, automatically monitor the level of radioactive environment and crack down on the transportation of illegal nuclear materials. At the same time, a comprehensive monitoring system of radioactive environment which is developed based on the above mentioned products and advanced system integration technology mastered by Safeway System can provide customers with more comprehensive and integrated security check solutions.
Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)
In the traditional method of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS), the testing substance is heated and the molecules would gasify before going through a permselective semipermeable membrane and entering the drift tube. Then, those different kinds of molecules would be ionized by ionization source into molecular ion groups, which, under the effect of the electric field in the drift tube, would migrate through the tube to the detector with different speed, produce current pulse in the detector and finally form an Ion Mobility Spectra with migration time as the horizontal axis and current intensity as the vertical axis. As the migration speed is based on the ion’s mass, size and charge, different substances can be distinguished from the peaks in different position in the spectra.
Besides the IMS technology, new orientation including Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometry (FAIM) has been developed with the development of technology.
As IMS-based technology inspection methods are featured by its advantages including being able to work under barometric pressure, high detection sensitivity, short analysis time, small size light in weight and low power consumption, it is the most practical trace detection method, which has been applied in various fields such as the detection of narcotics and explosives, testing of chemical warfare agent and monitoring of toxic gas from factories.
Millimeter Waves (MMW) technology
1.What are MMW?
Millimeter waves are electromagnetic waves with the wavelength from 1 to 10 millimeters. MMW share the features of microwaves and far infrared waves since the wavelength ranges between these two waves.
Millimeter waves play a significant role in communication, radar, control and guidance, remote sensing technology, radio astronomy, clinical medicine and spectroscopy. With millimeter wave frequency in the atmospheric window, we could undertake a large capacity of satellite-ground communication or ground relay communication. With the narrow beam antenna and low side-lobe performance of millimeter wave antenna, we could create precise tracking radar and imaging radar at a low elevation angle. When a long-range missile or a spacecraft reenters the atmosphere, millimeter waves will help to penetrate plasma to make the communication, control and guidance possible. High resolution millimeter wave radiometer is suitable for remote sensing of meteorological parameters. With the help of millimeter wave and sub-millimeter wave radio telescopes, we can detect space radiation spectrum and deduce the composition of the interstellar matters.
2.Technical principles of the MMW Imaging Technology
The active millimeter-wave holographic imaging technology produces the image mainly by using the penetrability of MMW to clothes. The system emits millimeter waves of certain frequency to human body and the waves will penetrate clothes and be reflected back after striking human body or other hidden objects. After the millimeter waves are received by the system, the system will extract useful information thereof and eventually generate MMW holographic images. From this image, we can determine whether there are suspicious items hidden on the surface of human body.
3.Why do we apply MMW Technology in the security inspection?
The millimeter waves’ frequency spectrum ranges between that of the infrared rays and microwaves. Comparing to visible lights and infrared rays, the millimeter waves could somewhat penetrate the most non-metallic materials, and have the resolution that the microwaves don’t have. Meanwhile, millimeter wave radiation is non-ionizing and harmless to human body, and its scanning electromagnetic radiation is only one thousandth of cell phone radiation. It is safer than microwaves.
Standing in front of the millimeter wave imaging equipment, all the clothes worn will disappear in the image, and objects like coins, buttons, pens and keys as well as other objects carried with the body are clearly visible against the background of body silhouette. Any contraband such as guns, bombs and drugs will be pretty clear at a glance.
4.MMW Technology applied in Chinasafe Equipment body scanner
Chinasafe MMW body scanner is a self-developed active MMW imaging device, which is characterized by fast scanning, overall inspection, safety and reliability, privacy protection, automatic identification of contraband, etc.
Back scattering technology
Back scattering body security inspection technology is a kind of non-intrusive body screening technology that produces the image of body surface for inspection. Through making human body exposed to X-rays with certain energy, collecting the X-rays scattered from the body surface, and carrying on statistical analysis, the image of the human body surface will be produced.
In this way, all kinds of prohibited articles (such as guns, knives, explosives, drugs, etc.) carried underneath the clothes will be displayed on the image. The substances (such as metal, ceramics, etc.) with the atomic number higher than that of the human body will be darker than the normal human body in the image, and the substances (such as explosives, drugs, etc.) with the atomic number lower than that of the human body will be brighter in the image. In this way, non-intrusive inspection will be realized to inspect the objects concealed on the surface of the human body.
Since X-rays do not need to penetrate the body, suitable X-ray energy can be selected to minimize the harm to human body caused by rays: the dose per scan by back scattering equipment is only about one thousandth of the dose for a chest X-ray, only equivalent to X-ray dose absorbed in taking a 2-minute airplane.
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